alar


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alar (Wikipedia)
Daminozide
Skeletal formula of daminozide
Names
IUPAC name
4-(2,2-Dimethylhydrazinyl)-4-oxobutanoic acid
Other names
N-(Dimethylamino)succinamic acid; Butanedioic acid mono (2,2-dimethyl hydrazine); Succinic acid 2,2-dimethyl hydrazide
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
1863230
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard100.014.988
EC Number
  • 216-485-9
KEGG
MeSHdaminozide
RTECS number
  • WM9625000
UNII
Properties
C6H12N2O3
Molar mass160.173 g·mol−1
AppearanceWhite crystals
Melting point 159.24 °C; 318.63 °F; 432.39 K
Hazards
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
  • >1,600 mg kg−1(dermal, rabbit)
  • 8,400 mg kg−1(oral, rat)
Related compounds
Related alkanoic acids
Octopine
Related compounds
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Daminozide – also known as Alar, Kylar, B-NINE, DMASA, SADH, or B 995 – is a plant growth regulator, a chemical sprayed on fruit to regulate growth, make harvest easier, and keep apples from falling off the trees before they ripen so they are red and firm for storage. Alar was first approved for use in the U.S. in 1963. It was primarily used on apples until 1989, when the manufacturer voluntarily withdrew it after the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed banning it based on concerns about cancer risks to consumers.

It was produced in the U.S. by the Uniroyal Chemical Company, Inc, (now integrated into the Chemtura Corporation), which registered daminozide for use on fruits intended for human consumption in 1963. In addition to apples and ornamental plants, they also registered for use on cherries, peaches, pears, Concord grapes, tomato transplants, and peanut vines. On fruit trees, daminozide affects flow-bud initiation, fruit-set maturity, fruit firmness and coloring, preharvest drop and market quality of fruit at harvest and during storage. In 1989, the EPA made it illegal to use daminozide on U.S. food crops, but still allow for non-food crops like ornamental plants.

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