|Idiopathic intracranial hypertension|
|Other names||Benign intracranial hypertension (BIH), pseudotumor cerebri (PTC)|
|For the diagnosis, brain scans (such as MRI) should be done to rule out other potential causes|
|Symptoms||Headache, vision problems, ringing in the ears with the heartbeat|
|Usual onset||20–50 years old|
|Risk factors||Overweight, tetracycline|
|Diagnostic method||Based on symptoms, lumbar puncture, brain imaging|
|Differential diagnosis||Brain tumor, arachnoiditis, meningitis|
|Treatment||Healthy diet, salt restriction, exercise, surgery|
|Frequency||2 per 100,000 per year|
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), previously known as pseudotumor cerebri and benign intracranial hypertension, is a condition characterized by increased intracranial pressure (pressure around the brain) without a detectable cause. The main symptoms are headache, vision problems, ringing in the ears with the heartbeat, and shoulder pain. Complications may include vision loss.
Risk factors include being overweight or a recent increase in weight.Tetracycline may also trigger the condition. The diagnosis is based on symptoms and a high intracranial pressure found during a lumbar puncture with no specific cause found on a brain scan.
Treatment includes a healthy diet, salt restriction, and exercise.Bariatric surgery may also be used to help with weight loss. The medication acetazolamide may also be used along with the above measures. A small percentage of people may require surgery to relieve the pressure.
About 2 per 100,000 people are newly affected per year. The condition most commonly affects women aged 20–50. Women are affected about 20 times more often than men. The condition was first described in 1897.