Cervical vertebrae


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Cervical vertebrae (Wikipedia)
Cervical vertebrae
Cervical vertebrae lateral2.png
Position of human cervical vertebrae (shown in red). It consists of 7 bones, from top to bottom, C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, and C7.
Cervical vertebra english.png
A human cervical vertebra
Details
Identifiers
LatinVertebrae cervicales
MeSHD002574
TAA02.2.02.001
FMA72063 9915, 72063
Anatomical terms of bone

In tetrapods, cervical vertebrae (singular: vertebra) are the vertebrae of the neck, immediately below the skull. Truncal vertebrae (divided into thoracic and lumbar vertebrae in mammals) lie caudal (toward the tail) of cervical vertebrae. In sauropsid species, the cervical vertebrae bear cervical ribs. In lizards and saurischian dinosaurs, the cervical ribs are large; in birds, they are small and completely fused to the vertebrae. The vertebral transverse processes of mammals are homologous to the cervical ribs of other amniotes.[citation needed] Most mammals have seven cervical vertebrae, with the only three known exceptions being the manatee with six, the two-toed sloth with five to six, and the three-toed sloth with nine.

In humans, cervical vertebrae are the smallest of the true vertebrae and can be readily distinguished from those of the thoracic or lumbar regions by the presence of a foramen (hole) in each transverse process, through which the vertebral artery, vertebral veins, and inferior cervical ganglion pass. The remainder of this article focuses upon human anatomy.

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